I’ve worked on projects at various stages of maturity, which call for different approaches depending on product-level priorities. These stages blend between one another, are often iterative, and the projects I’ve been exposed to have defined their phase segmentations differently, but here’s a generalised overview:

Conceptualisation & Definition

Proof-of-concept Prototype

Early-stage Prototypes

Late-stage Prototypes

Start-of- / Post-production

Product Development Stages

- Searching for product market fit
- Primary and secondary research to scope end-customer needs
- Ultra-low fidelity prototyping to demonstrate design intent

- MVP: defined product category and value proposition(s)
- Gathering feedback from early adopters
- Quick iterations with rapid prototyping and off-the-shelf components

- Early low-volume testing (engineering validation tests)
- Soft-tooled parts
- Top-down analysis: requirements listing and system decomposition

- Detailed function and manufacturing de-risking (design and production validation tests)
- First-off hard-tooled parts
- Pre-production sample runs
- Bottom-up tests: verification and integration

- Change management for mid- / post-manufacturing updates
- Detailed optimisation for cost-down and reliability factors



Arrival ↗ is an electric vehicle manufacturer developing electric buses and delivery vans. By focusing on applying new materials, modularity and simplicity into engineering design, the mission is to deliver configuration flexibility and low cost of ownership to vehicle fleet operators.


Early-stage to Late-stage Prototypes

ResponsibilitiesMechanical Design Engineering // Project Engineering // Manufacturing & Production



As a member within the vehicle interiors engineering team, I was responsible for the design development of sub-systems within the driver cab area for the Arrival Bus, from vehicle integration, mechanical engineering design and project management standpoints.

This involved collaboration with cross-functional stakeholders for concept generation, design development, prototype build and verification & validation activities, and liaising with tier-1 suppliers on project engineering and resolution of technical issues.


- Took 16 sub-systems from an early-stage prototype stage to a production-ready, hard-tooled stage

- Introduced BOM cost-saves with cross-platform component commonisation and manufacturing optimisations

- De-risked sub-systems through test and verification processes